New Delhiinfo-icon: Indiainfo-icon is witnessing trailers of future conflicts and its adversaries will continue with efforts to achieve their strategic aims, Armyinfo-icon Chief Gen MM Naravane said on Thursday delving into national security challenges emanating from Chinainfo-icon and Pakistaninfo-icon.

In an address at an online seminar, he said India is facing "unique, substantial and multi-domain" security challenges and that developments on the northern borders had adequately underscored the requirement of ready and capable forces.

Without naming China and Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff said that the disputed borders with nuclear-capable neighbours coupled with state-sponsored proxy warinfo-icon were stretching the security apparatus and the resources.

"We are witnessing trailers of future conflicts. These are being enacted daily on the information battlefield, in the networks and cyberspace. They are also being played along unsettled and active borders," he said.

"It is for usinfo-icon now to visualise the battlefield contours of tomorrow based on these trailers. If you look around, you will realise the reality of today," he said.

The Army chief said the developments on the northern borders had adequately underscored the requirement of ready and capable forces with an optimal component of boots on the ground backed by modern technologyinfo-icon to preserve the country's sovereignty and integrity.

"Our adversary shall continue with their efforts to achieve their strategic aims...sort of conflictinfo-icon by use of grey zone activities in the political, military and economic domains, and do so in a collusive manner," he said.

"The events of 2020 have been testimony to the diversity of security threats in all domains and this has brought the spotlight towards non-contact and grey zone warfare. We need to augment capabilities in both non-contact and contact modes of warfare," he said referring to the eastern Ladakh face-off.

In an oblique reference to China, he said that some nations are challenging the globally accepted norms and the rules-based order.

Gen Naravane said the developments in Afghanistaninfo-icon had again brought to focus the use of proxies and non-state actors to decisive effect.